Why did he do it ? Why did he spend something like 4 million German marks
keeping his Jews out of the death camps - an enormous sum of money for
those times ? Why did he risk his life to rescue his Jews in the shadow of
Samaritan actions, brotherly love ...? Oskar Schindler does not exactly
fit the description of guardian angel very well! We think we know what
goodness looks like. It looks like Gandhi, skinny in his loincloth, or
Mother Teresa, unostentatious in her nun's habit. Goodness does not drink,
womanize, wear big Nazi-badges ...
No one will ever know exactly what made this complex man do what no German
had the courage to do. A large part of the fascination of Schindler is
that not even those who admire him most can figure out his motives. But Oskar Schindler rose to the highest level of humanity, walked through the
bloody mud of the Holocaust without soiling his soul, his compassion, his
respect for human life - and gave his Jews a second chance at life.
He miraculously managed to do it and pulled it off by using the very same
talents that made him a war profiteer - his flair for presentation,
bribery, and grand gestures.
Oskar Schindler was a sentimentalist who loved the simplicity of doing
good. A man full of flaws like the rest of us. An ordinary man who
even in the worst of circumstances did extraordinary things, matched by no
one. The unlikeliest of all role models who started by earning millions as
a war profiteer and ended by spending his last pfennig and risking his
life to save his 1300 Schindlerjews.
Schindler not only saved their lives - he saved our faith in
his acclaimed international bestseller Schindler's Ark, the author Thomas
Keneally tells us, that one of the most common sentiments of the
Schindlerjews is still:"I don't know why he did it ..." Keneally
drops a hint in his description of Oskar Schindler's childhood, a strong
Catholic household and deeply religious parents. The nearest neighbors
were a Jewish Rabbi family, and the two sons were Oskar's closest friends
Spielberg, who turned the novel into a seven Academy Award-winning film,
Schindler's List, pointed out in an interview in Der Spiegel, that Oskar
Schindler simply was 'ein guter Mensch', whose sheer humanity forced him
to take extremely great personal risks to save the Schindlerjews.
decade before Schindler's List made it to the top of Hollywood's
A-list Jon Blair, producer and director, made Schindler, an
80-minute documentary for Britain's Thames Television about Oscar
Schindler's life. In 1983 it won the British Academy Award for best
documentary. But the film left few clues as to why Schindler devoted his
fortunes and future to saving the lives of his Jews. Blair later
told:"Oskar, this big man with a big heart and big connections, loved
to be loved and needed. But I always felt it was a weakness in my film
that I couldn't explain Schindler's motivation, and Spielberg told me the
same about his - it seems impossible to crack that enigma .."
Glovin, Schindler's attorney and friend, met Oskar in 1963 and bought the
rights to the story and film in 1980. He later recalled Schindler not only
with affection, but with great admiration:"He drank, yes, he drank.
He liked women. He bribed. But he bribed for a good purpose. All of these
things worked. If he were not this kind of person he probably wouldn't
have succeeded. Whatever it took to save a life he did. He worked the
system extraordinarily well. He was a true human being in the best sense
of the word .. His actions in those circumstances were absolutely
extraordinary and I know of no one who has matched them."
wife, Emilie Schindler, recalls Oskar this way in A Memoir Where Light
And Shadow Meet:"In spite of his flaws, Oscar had a big heart and
was always ready to help whoever was in need. He was affable, kind,
extremely generous and charitable, but at the same time, not mature at all
a 1964 interview, standing in front of his dingy apartment Am Hauptbahn
No. 4 in Frankfurt Am Main, West Germany, Oskar Schindler for once
commented on what he did:
persecution of Jews in occupied Poland meant that we could see horror
emerging gradually in many ways. In 1939, they were forced to wear Jewish
stars, and people were herded and shut up into ghettos. Then, in the years
'41 and '42 there was plenty of public evidence of pure sadism. With
people behaving like pigs, I felt the Jews were being destroyed. I had to
help them. There was no choice."
Schindler survivor, Murray Pantirer, set up a construction firm after the
war and has by now dedicated 25 streets in New Jersey to Oskar Schindler's
memory. Through all the years the big question always remained: Why? What
prompted Schindler to act as he did, at tremendous risk to himself ?
Pantirer thinks he got the answer:
came to my house once, and I put a bottle of cognac in front of him, and
he finished it in one sitting. When his eyes were flickering - he wasn't
drunk - I said this is the time to ask him the question 'why' ? His answer
was 'I was a Nazi, and I believed that the Germans were doing wrong ...
when they started killing innocent people - and it didn't mean anything to
me that they were Jewish, to me they were just human beings, menschen - I
decided I am going to work against them and I am going to save as many as
I can'. And I think that Oskar told the truth, because that's the way he
asked, Schindler told that his metamorphosis during the war was sparked by
the shocking immensity of the Final Solution. In his own words: "I
hated the brutality, the sadism, and the insanity of Nazism. I just
couldn't stand by and see people destroyed. I did what I could, what I had
to do, what my conscience told me I must do. That's all there is to it.
Really, nothing more."
Schindler was isolated and rejected by his fellow citizens after World War
II. His clear indictment of German war criminals in the trials after the
war nourished the hatred that many felt for him. He was persecuted, he was
sworn at on the streets, and stones were thrown at him. He was an
irritating reminder to everyone that it had after all been possible to do
something against the Nazis. It was said that he was their bad conscience
- the conscience of all those who had known something but done nothing.
years after the war, Moshe Bejski, a Schindlerjew and later a Supreme
Court justice in Israel, asked Schindler why he did it ? Schindler
replied, "I knew the people who worked for me. When you know people,
you have to behave towards them like human beings."
Poldek Pfefferberg, another Schindlerjew, recalled how Schindler in 1944
was a very wealthy man, a multimillionaire:"He could have taken the
money and gone to Switzerland ... he could have bought Beverly
Hills. But instead, he gambled his life and all of his money to save us
..." When Pfefferberg asked him the same question 'WHY' ?
Schindler answered, "There was no choice. If you saw a dog going to
be crushed under a car, wouldn't you help him?"
on the days when the air was black with the ashes from bodies on fire,
there was hope in Crakow because Oskar Schindler was there. Helen
Beck, a Schindler survivor, recalls:"We gave up many times, but
he always lifted our spirits ... Schindler tried to help people however he
could. That is what we remember."
Ferber - today Rena Finder - was only 10 years old when the Nazis invaded
Poland. She was saved by Oskar Schindler and later recalled:"He was a
gambler, who loved living on the edge. He loved outsmarting the SS. I
would not be alive today if it wasn't for Oskar Schindler. To us he was
our God, our Father, our protector."
Ferber's name also was on 'Schindler's List'. He was one of the youngest 'Schindlerjews'
and later told how Oscar Schindler underwent a transformation when he
witnessed the sadism of the Nazis and gave up everything to save as many
lives as he could. "I thank God for Oskar Schindler. If not for him,
I would not be here and not have any family."
an 11-year-old boy, Zev Kedem was another Schindlerjew, whose life was
miraculously saved by Schindler. Only an operator like Oskar Schindler
could have pulled off this effort, Kedem says: "If he was a virtuous,
honest guy, no one in a corrupt, greedy system like the SS would accept
him .. In a weird world that celebrated death, he recognized the Jews as
humans. Schindler used the corrups ways, creativity and ingenuity against
the monster machine dedicated to death."
is credited with many acts of kindness, small and large. Abraham Zuckerman
spent five of his teenage years in Nazi kz camps. He later recalled Oskar
Schindler this way:"There were SS guards but he would say 'Good
morning' to you. He was a chain smoker and he´d throw the cigarette on
the floor after only two puffs, because he knew the workers would pick it
up after him. To me he was an angel. Because of him I was treated like a
human being. And because of him I survived .."
Zuckerman recalled how Oskar Schindler got 300 Schindler-women released
from the deathcamp Auschwitz - during World War 2 the only shipment out of
Auschwitz, where the Nazis murdered 2-3 million people. "What people
don't understand about Oskar is the power of the man, his strength, his
determination. Everything he did he did to save the Jews. Can you imagine
what power it took for him to pull out from Auschwitz 300 people ? At
Auschwitz, there was only one way you got out, we used to say. Through the
chimney! Understand ? Nobody ever got out of Auschwitz. But Schindler got
out 300 ....! "
day the 300 Schindler-women were routed on a train to Auschwitz by a
mistake. Certain death awaited. A Schindler survivor, Anna Duklauer Perl,
later recalled:'I knew something had gone terribly wrong .. they cut our
hair real short and sent us to the shower. Our only hope was Schindler
would find us.'
Schindler-women were being herded off toward the showers. They did not
know whether this was going to be water or gas. Then they heard a voice:
'What are you doing with these people ? These are my people.' Schindler!
He had come to rescue them, bribing the Nazis to retrieve the women on his
list and bring them back. And the women were released.
they returned to his factory, weak, hungry, frostbitten, less than human,
Schindler met them in the courtyard. They never forgot the sight of
Schindler standing in the doorway. And they never forgot his raspy voice
when he - surrounded by SS guards - gave them an unforgettable guarantee:
'Now you are finally with me, you are safe now. Don't be afraid of
anything. You don't have to worry anymore.'
Dresner was one of the Schindlerjews, and his mother and sister were among
the 300 Schindler-women, Schindler got out of Auschwitz. "That was
something nobody else did," Dresner later recalled, "Schindler
was an adventurer. He was like an actor who always wanted to be centre
Schindler survivor, Ludwik Feigenbaum, gave this description of
Schindler:"I don't know what his motives were, even though I knew him
very well. I asked him and I never got a clear answer and the film doesn't
make it clear, either. But I don't give a damn. What's important is that
he saved our lives .."
some questioned Schindler's motives. Stanislaw Dobrowolski, member of the
Polish underground committee during World War 2, had a scathing opinion of
Oskar Schindler. He argued that Schindler only saved his Jews because he
was convinced that the Nazis would lose the war.
Poldek Pfefferberg, a Schindler-Jew who spent 40 years trying to drum up
interest in the Schindler-Story, had no doubt about the nobility of Schindler's
motives. He insisted that Oskar Schindler began helping Jews long before
the tide of war turned against the Nazis. 'He risked his life,'
Pfefferberg said. 'He was doing it from the first day.'
similar assessment came from Irving Glovin, Schindler's attorney. 'The man
rose to an occasion,' Glovin said. 'Why the story is remarkable is that he
did something when it appeared that the Germans were winning, and he did
it over a long period of time, about four years, and he did it in the
worst area, Poland, and he did it openly ... He did it for strangers.'
Schindler earned the everlasting gratitude of his Schindlerjews. No matter
why, no matter that he was an alcoholic and a shameless
womanisor of the worst sort, no matter that he was no saint and left his
wife - what matters to his Jews is that he surfaced from the chaos of
madness and risked everything for them. And generations will remember him
for what he did. No matter how many businesses Schindler failed in, he was
a success in life ..